LIT ( Lymphocyte Immune Therapy)
Recurrent pregnancy loss is a major complication of pregnancy affecting 2% of childbearing women. In addition to the direct consequences of miscarriage, there is psychological morbidity that women with recurrent pregnancy loss are likely to incur. These patients need continuing moral support (from the family and the doctor treating her). Usually women are investigated for genetic, anatomic or hormonal causes, 60% to 70% of these women have immunological problem.
The Immunology of Normal and Abnormal Pregnancy
Normally after ovulation, the egg travels into the fallopian tube. Fertilization occurs here. This embryo multiplies and moves towards the uterus and finally settles down in the uterine lining to develop into a fetus. The fetus has two components:
– One part is derived from the mother, the other from the father. If the mother’s component is not protected, it can lead to spontaneous abortion as in auto immune diseases. (blood tests recommended are lupus anti-coagulant and anti-cardiolipin antibody). These auto-immune defects can be treated by giving aspirin, heparin and if needed, steroids.
– The father’s component is not protected as in allo-immune defects. Natural Killer cell activity of the white blood cell (WBC) in the uterine lining can be now tested. If this is raised patient is treated by lymphocyte immune therapy (LIT), using blood of husband or an unrelated person. Lymphocyte Immune Therapy (LIT) is repeated many times until the klller cell activities of WBC’s comes to normal levels.
LIT – Personal Experience
We at Sant Parmanand Hospital, Delhi, started to give LIT for recurrent sponteneous abortion from Feburary 1998. LIT was started for infertility from September 1998 & Our first LIT baby was born on 13 September 1998.
The department has achieved laurels in managing patients with prolonged infertility & recurrent spontaneous abortions, and post menopausal pregnancies. The department is proud to have undertaken various research activities in managing such patients with lymphocyte immune therapy which has now been internationally recognized.
Lymphocyte immune therapy is still faced with controversy because of lack of well-conducted clinical studies. Therefore, the modality of treatment has not gained popularity. However, if we consider recurrent spontaneous abortion as allo-immune recognition failure, this method of treatment sounds logical.
Panel of Consulant
Head Of Deparment: Dr. NIRMALA AGARWAL
M.B.B.S., D.G.O., M.R.C.O.G.(UK), F.R.C.O.G.(U.K.), FIMSA